SHIA MUSLIM POPULATION IN NORTH AMERICA [ Part 2 ]
A statistical report on Shia Muslim population, communities, roots and
Socioeconomic status in the U.S.A and Canada.
=====================
Table 5 : Estimate of Muslims/Shia Muslims in the US:! 1950
Estimate (Thousands)
Ancestry Muslims Shia Muslims
East Europe 210 14
Middle East/North Africa 265 79
Sub Sahara 27 05
Asian 150 38
Caribbean 23 01
African American 285 07
…………………………………………………………….
Total 960 144
Table 6: Estimate of Muslims/Shia Muslims in the US, 1995
Muslims Shia Muslims
1950 Estimate 960000 144000
Acc. immigration (195195) 3468000 743000
Acc. Births (195195) 3694000 926000
Local African American Growth & others
 conversion (195195) 1483000 149000
…………………………………………………………………
Total 9605000 1962000
Table 7: Estimate of Muslims/Shia Muslims in Canada, 1950
Estimate (Thousands)
Ancestry Muslims Shia Muslims
East Europe 38 6.9
Middle East/North Africa 49 8.8
Sub Sahara 15 2.9
Asian 29 7.2
Caribbean 09 1.7
African American 32 3.5
…………………………………………………………………
Total 172 31.0
Table 8 : Estimate of Muslims/Shia Muslims in the Canada, 1995
Muslims Shia Muslims
1950 Estimate 172000 31000
Acc. Immigration (195195) 375000 77000
Ace. Births (195195) 429000 112000
Local African American Growth & others
 conversion (195195) 135000 36000
……………………………………………………………….
Total 1,111000 256000

TabIl'9: us Muslims/Shia Muslims Population (1995) 


1 North East (23 States) 





States 
population 
Muslim 
Shia Muslim 
MMC 
Mosques 
01 Connecticut (CT) 
3,400.000 
81,000 
15,000 
10 
16 
02 Delaware (DE) 
750,000 
20,000 
04,000 
05 
04 
03 District of Columbia (DC) 
620,000 
14,000 
03.000 
05 
05 
04 Illinois (IL) 
11,750,000 
560,000 
98,000 
35 
68 
05 Indiana (IN) 
5,850,000 
241,000 
38,000 
28 
32 
06 Iowa (IA) 
3,015,000 
80,000 
16,000 
17 
15 
07 Kentucky (KY) 
3,940,000 
101,000 
24.000 
20 
18 
08 Maine (ME) 
1.650,000 
56.000 
13,000 
07 
10 
09 Maryland (MD) 
5,150,000 
235,000 
38,000 
27 
30 
10 Massachusetts (J\1A) 
6,200,000 
156,000 
27,000 
18 
21 
11 Michigan (MI) 
9.750.000 
453,000 
90,000 
44 
52 
12 Minnesota (MN) 
'1,550,000 
112,000 
22,000 
17 
19 
13 Missouri (MO) 
5,350,000 
133,00li 
28,000 
19 
20 
14 New Hampshire (NH) 
1,150,000 
41,000 
11,000 
07 
07 
15 New Jersey (NJ) 
7,850,000 
384,000 
63,000 
36 
48 
16 New York (NY) 
18,300,000 
662,000 
138,000 
62 
109 
17 Ohio (OR) 
11,150,000 
457,000 
92,000 
41 
61 
18 Pennsylvania (PA) 
12,200,000 
233,000 
36,000 
34 
28 
19 Rhode Island (RI) 
1,150,000 
42,000 
08,000 
07 
07 
20 Vermont (VT) 
800,000 
22,000 
04,000 
05 
06 
21 Virginia (VA) 
6,520,000 
269,000 
46.000 
37 
38 
22 West Virginia (WV) 
2,010,000 
54,000 
11,000 
10 
10 
23 Wisconsin (WI) 
5,150,000 
128,000 
24,000 
21 
19 

 
 
 
 
 
Total 
128,255,000 
4,534,000 
849,000 
512 
649 
2 South East no states) 





States 
Population 
Muslim 
Shia Muslim 
MMC 
Mosques 
01 Alabama (AL) 
4,200,000 
140,000 
34,000 
16 
18 
02 Arkansas (AR) 
2,600,000 
98,000 
20,000 
08 
12 
03 Florida (FL) 
13.650,000 
603,000 
112,000 
25 
74 
04 Georgia (GA) 
6,870,000 
305,000 
54,000 
18 
39 
05 Louisiana (LA) 
4,450,000 
161,000 
35,000 
16 
17 
06 Mississippi (MS) 
2,800,000 
116,000 
26,000 
10 
14 
07 North Carolina (NC) 
7,010,000 
105,000 
37,000 
18 
17 
08 Puerto Rico (PR) 
3.6.'0,000 
121,000 
27,000 
10 
10 
09 South Carolina (SC) 
3.710,000 
132,000 
31.000 
11 
14 
10 Tennessee (TN) 
5,150,000 
182,000 
37,000 
18 
20 

 
 
 
…… 
…. 
Total 
54.090,000 
2.063.000 
413,000 
150 
Z35 
3 North West (9 states) 





States 
Population 
Muslim 
Shia Muslim 
MMC 
Mosques 
1 Alaska (AK) 
625.000 
12.000 
02..000 
05 
02. 
2  Idaho (ill) 
1.150,000 
65.000 
18,000 
09 
10 
3 Montana (MT) 
1,020,000 
62.000 
15,000 
08 
09 
4 Nebraska (NE) 
1,850,000 
93,000 
22,000 
16 
12 
5 North Dakota (ND) 
900,000 
37,000 
08.000 
07 
08 
6 Oregon (OR) 
3,150,000 
100,000 
20.000 
18 
12 
7 South Dakota (SD) 
1,000,000 
59,000 
14,000 
08 
08 
8 Washington (W A) 
5,270,000 
113,000 
27.000 
15 
13 
9 Wyoming (WY) 
700,000 
17,000 
04,000 
06 
06 

……………….. 
 
 
 
…… 
Total 
15,665,000 
558,000 
130,000 
92 
79 
4 South West (10 states) 





States 
Population 
Muslim 
Shia Muslim 
MMC 
Mosques 
01 Arizona (AZ) 
03,995,000 
0,157,000 
024.000 
15 
013 
02 California (CA) 
31.050.000 
1.035,000 
276,000 
75 
115 
03 Colorado (CO) 
03,650,000 
0.156.000 
026.000 
16 
013 
04 Hawaii (ill) 
01.285,000 
0,031,000 
006,000 
06 
004 
05 Kansas (KS) 
02,750,000 
0,127,000 
031,000 
12 
010 
06 Nevada (NV) 
01,450,000 
0.052,000 
014,000 
06 
008 
07 New Mexico CNM) 
01,750,000 
0,069,000 
016.000 
09 
009 
08 Oklahoma (OK) 
03,450,000 
0,133,000 
032.000 
14 
014 
09 Texas (TX) 
17,850,000 
0,618,000 
130,000 
26 
083 
10 Utah (UT) 
01,950,000 
0.072,000 
015,000 
10 
009 


……………… 
……….. 
………… 
….. 
……. 
Total 
69,180,000 
2,450,000 
570.000 
189 
278 
Total (USA) 
267.190,000 
9,605,000 
1,962.000 
943 
1,241 


Tablt10: Canada Muslims/Shia Muslims Population (1995 ) 






1 Eastern Region (4 provinces) 





province 
Population 
Muslim 
Shia Muslim 
MMC 
Mosques 
INew Foundland (NF) 
650,000 
38,000 
8500 
14 
04 
2 Nova Scotia (NS) 
980.000 
47,000 
9800 
18 
07 
3 Prince Edward Island (PE) 
175.000 
07,000 
1700 
05 
04 
4 New Brunswick (NB) 
810,000 
39,000 
7900 
16 
03 


nn 
 
_n___ 
 
 
Total 
2,615,000 
131.000 
27,900 
53 
18 
2 Central Region (2 provinces) 





P rovince 
Population 
Muslim 
Shift Muslim 
MMC 
Mosques 
1 Quebec (PQ) 
07,200,000 
305,000 
81.800 
116 
35 
2 Ontario (ON) 
10,285,000 
325.000 
71,100 
133 
29 


 
 
 
 
n. 
Total 
17,485,000 
630,000 
152.900 
249 
64 
3 Western Region (4 provinces) 





P rovince 
Population 
Muslim 
Shia Muslim 
MMC 
Mosques 
1 Manitoba(MB) 
1,200,000 
062,000 
12,400 
16 
07 
2, Saskatchewan (SK) 
1,150,000 
065,000 
11.600 
18 
07 
3 Alberta (AB) 
2,750,000 
105,000 
2'1,700 
31 
11 
4. British Colombia (Be) 
],480,000 
118,000 
26,500 
42 
OS 


 
 
 
 
 
Total 
8,380,000 
330.000 
75.200 
107 
33 
Total (Canada) 
28,680,000 
1,111,000 
256,000 
409 
115 
Note. 1: It is noticeable that in USA, Alaska had the minimum l number of Shia population (2000) and communities (5) with average community members of 400. while California had the maximum number of Shia population (276,000) and communities (75) with average community members of3680.
Note. 2: It is noticeable that in Canada, Prince Edward Island had the minimum number of Shia population (1700) and communities (5) with average community members of340. while Quebec had the maximum number of Shia population (81,800) and communities (116) with average community members of 705.
d SocioEconomic Status
Shia Muslims established their places of worship in private homes and rented halls, if they did not have a permanent Mosque or Mussalla. They, usually, held religious classes for their children on Saturdays and/or Sundays. They were normally active and hard working people. Many early Shia immigrants worked as bellboys, waiters, mechanics, janitors, factory workers, insurance agents and businessmen.
Shia who left Asia and Africa to live in the Americas and elsewhere after WW  II were spurred by economic changes and political upheavals in their homeland and attracted by opportunities for economic betterment in the west. By the end of the 20th century Shias are found, virtually, in every country in the western hemisphere. They come from many different nations (Mostly Middle eastern! Asian) and include speakers of many Arabic dialects and numerous Turkic and IndoEuropean languages. In the early 1960s Shias began to acquire remarkably high levels of scientific and technical education and to hold advanced positions in professions (lawyers, engineers, teachers, chartered accountants etc..), business (Bookstores, car dealers, restaurants, real state, advertisement, insurance and financial agents), industry (textile, furniture, carpet, food, fisheries, printing, office equipment and electrical/electronic appliances), medicine (physicians, opticians, dentists, surgeons, etc..), engineering (nuclear, mechanical, electrical, chemical etc..) and technology (auto mechanics, photography, welding, machining etc..).
Statistical analysis of several random samples of Shia Muslim members of different communities in different geographic locations in the US and Canada revealed a representative average of the present socioeconomic levels of Shia communities in USA and Canada as the following classes:
1 Students (all levels) 13.50%
2 Businessmen, store keepers &self employed 32.25%
3  Professionals, trained tradesmen & office employees 27.75%
4 Labor of all types(skilled/unskilled) 18.00%
5 Unemployed 05.50%
6 Refugees (without green cards/landed immigrant status) 03.00%
4REFERENCES
a Statistical Techniques
1 Bendat J.S  Measurement and Analysis of Random Data. John Wiley & Son. New York 1966
2 Brunk. H.D.  An Introduction to Mathematical Statistics. 2nd Ed.. Waltham. Mass. 1965
3 Graybill. F.A.  An Introduction to Linear Statistical Models. Vol.1, McGraw Hill Co., New York 1961
4 Kendall, M.G.  The Advanced Theory of Statistics. Vol. 1. New York 1958
5 Lee. C.K.  Optimal Estimation. Identification and Control. M.I.T. Press. Cambridge. Mass. 1964
6 Mood. A. M.  introduction to the Theory of Statistics. 2nd Ed. New York 1963
7 Spiegel. Murray R.  Theory and Problems of Statistics. McGraw Hill Co. New York 1961
b World Muslim Population
1 CastelloCortes. Ian  World Reference Atlas. McMillan Canada, Toronto 1994
2 Dunbar. Nelia/Rajewski, Brian  Countries of the World  Year Book 1995, Vol. 1&2
Gale Research Inc., Detroit, Mi 1995
3 The ForeignBorn Population in the US  1990 Census of Population (1990  CP31)
4 Hutchinson G.E.  An Introduction to Population Ecology. Yale Uinv. Press. New Haven, Conn. 1978
5 Johnson. Otto  Executive Editor. Almanac Atlas Year Book 1994  47th Edition
Houghton Mifflin CO. New York 1994
6 McEvedy, Colin/Jones. Richard  Atlas of World Population History. Facts on File. New York 1995
7 Pianka. E.R. Evolutionary Ecology. 4th Edition. Harper & Row New York 1988
8 Strickberger. M.W.  Evolution. Univ. of Missouri  St Louis, Jones and Bartlett Boston 1990
9 US Statistical Abstracts. Bureau of Census. Dept. of Commerce. 115th Ed. Washington DC 1995
10 Weeks. Richard V  Editor,  Muslim Peoples: a World Ethnographic Survey. New York 1978
c Muslim Immigration
J  Ancestry of Population by state. Bureau of census. Dept. of Commerce. Washington DC 1990
2 Anderson. James M. / Smith. Iva A. Ethnic Groups in Michigan, Detroit 1983
3 Barrett David  Christian Courier No. 2638. Sept. 27 J996 St. Catherine's, On, Can.
4 Beige. Barbara 1. The Encyclopedia of Religion, Vol. 7 McMillan Publishing Co. New York 1987
5 Bijlefeld. Willem A.  Islam. Grolier Electronic Publishing. Inc. Toronto 1992
6 EIKoly. Abdo  The Arab Muslim in the United States New Haven 1966
7  Ellio. .lean L.  Minority Canadians: Immigrant Group Scarborough. On. 1961
8 Haddad. Yvonne Y. , /Haines, Byron/Findly. Ellison  The Islamic Impacl Syracuse 1984
9 Haddad. Yvonne Y. . Editor  The Muslim of America, Estimate of Muslims Living in
America (Carol L. Stones) Oxford Univ. Press. New York 1991
10 Immigrants Admitted by Country of Birth:  1954  93. Immigration and Naturalization Service.
Dept. of Justice. Washington DC 1995
I 1  Madelung.. Wilfred/Nasr. Seyed Hossein  The Encyclopedia of religion Vol. 13 McMillan
New York 1987. p. 2435. p. 257.
d American Muslims
1 AbuLaban. Baha  The Canadian Muslim Community: The Need for a New Survival Strategy,
The Muslim Community in North America. Edmonton 1983
2 Aswad. Barbara C.  Arabic Speaking Communities in American Cities. New York 1974
3 Hagopian. Elaine/Paden. Ann  The Arab American. Wilmette, IL. 1969
4 Kettani. M. Ali  Muslim in Europe and Americas. 2 Vols. Beirut 1976
5 Kettani . M. Ali  Muslim Minorities in the World Today, London 1986
6 Lovell. Emily Khaled  Islam in the United States: Past and Present. The Muslim Community in
North Americ,1. Edmonton 1983
7 Mansour. Ibrahim  Muslims in America. Rose EIYoussef (Arabic) Cairo Egypt.
No. 3490. May I. 1995 p. 2022
8 Martin. R.C. Islam: A Cultural Perspective, New York 1982
9 Waugh. Earle H./Quereshi. Regula B. The Muslim Community in North America Edmonton 1983
Appendix  A
Statistical Techniques Sampling, Regression, Correlation and Estimation
1 Sampling:
A system of statistical analysis in which samples are assumed to give a reasonably accurate
picture of the whole population. Sampling is the process of taking a sample. If repeated samples arc drawn from a probability distribution and the value of some statistic is calculated for each sample. the resulting set of values will define a new probability distribution known as the sampling distribution of the statistic. There arc many types of sampling. i.e. area, bulk. cluster. direct. extensive. indirect. intensive, inverse. line. I otter)' .mixed. multiphase. Probability , proportional ,quota, route, representative... etc.
2 Regression:
Regression analysis is a study of the relationship between two or more variables. The variable under study is called the dependent variable. The one or more variables whose variations may be causing changes in the dependent variable are called independent variable. Thus the independent variable would be the "cause" and the dependent variable the "effect" The regression analysis furnishes estimates of the parameters for expressing the relationship in mathematical form. and provides a measure of the reliability of the relationship. The regression line or curve of one variable on another is often called a trend line or trend curve and is often used for purposes of estimation. prediction or forecasting.
3 Correlation:
In general statistical usage correlation refers to the departure of two variables from independence. In this broad sense there are several coefficients. measuring the degree of correlation, adapted to the nature of the data. ] n a narrower sense correlation refers to the degree of dependence of two continuous variables. It is the degree of relationship between variables. which seeks to determine how well a linear or nonlinear equation describes or e:\..plains the relationship between variables. If all values of the variables satisfy an equation exactly we say that the variables are perfectly correlated or that there is perfect correlation between them. The ratio between one variable and another is called "Correlation coefficient". It is varying from + I for perfect correlation to I fm perfect negative correlation. being zero for complete absence of correlation.
It is important to distinguish between the two ideas behind the two techniques of "Regression" and "Correlation". In regression a cause andeffect relationship exists. A value of one variable is dependent on the value of another. In correlation. neither variable is a consequence of the other. instead both are the consequences of common elements. Correlation does not prove causation.
4 Estimation:
The theory of statistical estimation is usually concerned with assessing of value or importance and making useful opinion. It is necessary to form estimates of the parameters involve specifications of a given sample from a population. Usually. many different estimates of a given parameter can be derived. If the mean of the sampling distribution of a statistic equals the corresponding population parameter. the statistic is called all unbiased estimator of the parameter. otherwise it is called a biased estimator. The corresponding values of such statistics are called unbiased or biased estimates respectively. If the sampling distributions of two statistics have the same mean ( or expectation),the statistic with the smaller variance is called all efficient estimator of the mean while the other statistic is called an inefficient estimator. The corresponding values of the statistics are called efficient or inefficient estimates respectively. If we consider all possible statistics whose &1mpling distributions have the same mean. the one with the smallest variance is sometimes called the most efficient or best estimator of this mean. An estimate of a population parameter given by a single number is called a point estimate of the parameter. An estimate of a population parameter given by two numbers between which the parameter may be considered to lie is called an interval estimate of the parameter. A statement of the error or precision of an estimate is often called its reliability.
Notes: Net Reproductive Rate (NRR): A statistical parameter expressing a population's prevailing fertility when duly weighted by its mortality. When computed for the female part of the population only and for female births, it represents the ratio of live female births in successive generations, so that a population, stable in size will have a NRR (or replacement rate) of 1, and a rate higher than unity signifies a true biological increase in population numbers, while a rate less than unity indicate that the population is not biologically holding its own and will decrease in size.
NRR of the entire population (Ro) is the sum of al its individuals (survivorship) multiplied by their Fecundity at each age x.
Ro = E lx mx
Ix = survivorship, which represent that proportion of individuals who survive from age 0 to x out of a group, who were all born during the same period.
mx = fecundity, which represent the average number of offspring produced by an individual of age x.

Notes: Net Reproductive Rate (NRR): A statistical parameter expressing a population's prevailing fertility when duly weighted by its mortality. When computed for the fSrijJale part of the population only and for female births, it represents the ratio of live female births in successive generations, so that a population, stable in size will have a NRR (or replacement rate) of 1, and a rate higher than unity signifies a true biological increase in population numbers, while a rate less than unity indicate that the population is not biologically holding its own and will decrease in size.
NRR of the entire population (Ro) is the sum of al its individuals (survivorship) multiplied by their Fecundity at each age x.
Ro = Elx mx
Ix = survivorship, which represent that proportion of individuals who survive from age 0 to x out of a group, who were all born during the same period.
mx = fecundity, which represent the average number of offspring produced by an individual of age x.
prepared by : Dr. Youssef A.H. Mroueh 